pass urinalysis test

During a job interview, have you ever been asked to piss for your new employer?
New applicants for many of the Fortune 500 corporations are now
being forced to take a drug test. Drug byproducts can be detected in urine,
blood, hair, external residue, and even perspiration! Drugs aren’t the only
things they test for; employers are using urinalysis to test women for pregnancy.
Pregnant women are getting laid o or denied employment after
taking such a test. Parents are spying on their children. The DOD Directive
requires the military to screen all active duty members annually. If you don’t
want to be a victim of the drug war, this text will help you. If you are well
known, this text may protect your reputation. I strongly recommended that
drug users (pot smokers in particular) read this. Other drugs are covered as
well, but marijuana is the main focus of this paper.
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Chapter 2
Detection Times
Drug tests detect drugs as well as metabolites. Metabolites are the byproducts
of a substance after it has run through your system. To determine
whether you will pass or not, it is important to know how much of the illicit
metabolites are in your urine and how much is tested for. Table 2.1 will give
you an approximation; however, it varies depending on a number of factors.
The substance being tested, testing method, and levels tested for are major
2.1 Hal
ife of TetraHydraCannabinol
The hal
ife of THC concentration ranges between 0.8 to 9.8 days. There is
too much human variation to even approximate how long THC will be detected
in the urine of an individual. Infrequent users with a fast metabolism
will have the shortest detection time. Frequent users with a slow metabolism
will have long detection times. The only way to estimate a detection time
is to consider the lower and upper bounds (3-45 days), and decide based on
the factors I’ve mentioned.
2.2 Approximate Detection Times of Various
Substance Approximate Detection Time 9
Amphetamines 2-4 days
Barbituates (Short-Acting) 1 1 day
Barbituates (Long-Acting) 2 2-3 weeks
Benzodiazepines 3-7 days
Cannabinoids 3-45 days
Clenbuterol 3 2-4 days 4
Cocaine 2-4 days
Codeine 2-5 days
Euphorics (MDMA, psilocybin)5 1-3 days
LSD6 1-4 days
Methadone 3-5 days
Methaqualone 14 days
Nicotine ? 7
Opiates 2-4 days
Peptide hormones 3 undetectable
Phencyclidine (PCP) 2-4 days
Phenobarbital 10-20 days
Propoxyphene 6 hours to 2 days
Steroids 3 8 (anabolic oral) 14 days
Steroids 3 8 (anabolic parenterally) 1 month
Table 2.1: EMIT Detection Times of Substances in Urine
Try to call in sick on test day to delay one more day if possible; it will
Other factors determining degree of intoxication include:

uid intake
 frequency of intake of substance
 amount of substance
 potency of substance
 length of time you have been a user
 amount of body fat (for fat soluable substances such as THC)
2.2.1 Frequency of Intake
If you use marijuana on rare occasions, your urine may be clean of metabolites
in less than a week. There is a common and strange phenomena that occurs
with chronic users. You would expect a chronic user to have the longest
detection time and the smallest chance of passing. This is not always the
case. A chronic user with a high tolerance will eliminate drugs quicker than
an occasional user. Chronic users have tested negative after a week long
1for example: secobarbital
2for example: phenobarbital
3Performance Enhancers.
40.5 ng/mL by GC/MS.
5By RIA and GC/MS only. Not Detectable by EMIT.
6Detectable by EMIT and RIA, but rarely tested. A lab will only test for LSD when
speci cally requested.
7No data available yet. I expect the detection time to be long because nicotine is fat
8By HPLC, RIA, and GC/MS. Not Detectable by EMIT.
9Detection times vary depending on analytical method used, drug metabolism, tolerance,
patient’s condition,
uid intake and method and frequency of ingestion. These are
general guidelines only.
2.2.2 Amount of Body Fat
Lipid tissue also makes a huge di erence. Skinny users not only have a faster
metabolism (usually), but also lack storage for THC metabolites. Fat will
cause a lag in excretion pattern, and lead to a longer detection time.
2.2.3 Predicting Detection Period
You should now be able to understand why an individuals detection time
for THC is so unpredictable. Please don’t post or e-mail a question “how
long will it take…” This is the single most frequently asked question. Many
people can’t even begin to estimate a detection for their own bodys, let alone
the unseen, unknown body of a internet explorer.
There is an inaccurate program that will plot a graph of time versus percentage
of THC in your system given the days you’ve smoked. The program
is called CALC_THC.EXE and can be found on the internet. CALC_THC cannot
possibly be accurate because it doesn’t have any way of measuring the
potentcy of the weed, and it leaves metabolism out of the equation. (see
2.3 Positive (de ned)
50 nanograms of THC metabolites per milliliter de nes a “presumptive positive”
by NIDA certi ed labs. This value was originally 20 ng/mL, but too
many false positives resulted. So the level was raised to 100 ng/mL to reduce
false positives. As of January 1995, the threshold was lowered back down to
50 ng/mL because drinking water would easily bring a positive below 100 ng.
Be aware that these cuto s are not universally consistent. I recently heard
of a lab using a 15 ng/mL cuto ! Table 2.2 details the thresholds for other
All cuto levels are in nanograms/mL
1These values apply speci cally to Codeine and Morphine.
Substance Screening Cuto GC/MS Con rmation Cuto
Amphetamines 500 500
Methamphetamines 200 500
Barbituates 200 100
Cocaine 150 150
Marijuana 50 15
Opiates 1 300 300
Phenyclidine 25 25
cuto levels are in nanograms/mL
Table 2.2: Cuto Levels
2.3.1 Passive smoke and positives
“Second hand marijuana smoke in a car can cause you to fail the next day”
(Nightbyrd). It is possible that second hand [marijuana] smoke will raise
someone to the 50 ng/mL level; however, extreme exposure is required.
For instance, a closed car full of pot smokers and a non-smoker may render
the non-smoker positive for both urinalysis and the hair test, provided that
they are sealed in the car for a while. The Army did a case study where
volunteers were put in a room pumped full of smoke for an hour, ve times
daily. Subjects started testing positive after the second day. The non-smoker
would have to take in virtually as much second hand smoke as a smoker
inhales. Non-smokers are safe in a ventilated area, as long as they don’t get
a hair test. According to Clinton, simply blowing crack smoke on ones hair
may cause a positive hair test. Second hand pot smoke doesn’t a ect the
hair test results as much as crack smoke does mainly because exhaled smoke
contains no THC. The only pot smoke that contains THC is the smoke that
hasn’t entered the lungs.
2.4 Decreasing detection times
Increasing metabolism is probably the most e ective way to decrease the
time period that drugs can be detected in your system. Metabolism can be
uenced by physical activity, diet, and drugs.
2.4.1 Physical Activity
Physical activity can increase your metabolic rate as much as two thousand
percent! Nothing beats proper training taken to an extreme.
2.4.2 Diet
A high calorie diet is the next best way to increase metabolism. Consuming
mass quantities of high calorie food will increase metabolic rate by up to
10 percent. On the contrary, a malnutritious (light) diet could lower your
metabolism by 10 percent.
2.4.3 Using Drugs to Reduce Detection Times
Amphetamines will also increase metabolism. Unfortunately, labs usually
test for speed, and could get you into trouble.
Chapter 3
Test Methods
Five di erent bodily substances can be tested to reveal illicit drugs:
Although this text mainly addresses urinalysis, I try to cover methods for
beating all drug tests.
It would be helpful if people could somehow nd out which test they are
getting ahead of time. Though caution must be taken. Asking your boss
whether you’re getting an EMIT or GC/MS would imply that you know too
much, or seem too curious. The law doesn’t protect you from unjust hiring
practices, and your boss to be may refuse you employment for any reason. If
simply drinking a cup of water makes the boss feel uncomfortable, the verdict
may be guilty before you even take the test.
3.1 Substances that are Detectable
An assay can be developed for any drug using GC/MS. Table 3.1 zindicates
what can be dectected in screening tests.
Amphetamines X X ?
Antidepressants X ?
Barbituates X X ?
Benzodiazepines X X ?
Cannabinoids X X ?
Carbamazepine X ?
Cocaine X ?
Ethanol X ?
Methadone X ?
Morphine X ?
N-Acetylprocainamide X ?
Opiates X ?
Phenobarbital X ?
Propoxyphene X ?
Steroids X X
Theophylline X ?
Table 3.1: Detectability of Substances on Screening Tests
3.2 DrugAlert
DrugAlert is a $19.95 home test kit enabling parents to test their children.
This is the most inaccurate test being used, and it’s also the newest. The test
kit is a small brown pad giving o an Oxy pad odor. The [uninformed] parent
wipes the child’s clothes, books, and anything belonging to the child. Then
the pad is sent to Barringer Technologies via mail. (Note that it’s a felony
to send controlled substances through the mail. If the sample is positive,
Barringer Technologies is knowingly urging parents to break the law). The
lab puts the pad in a microwave looking machine, which detects residue from
seven di erent illicit drugs. The child fails the test if s/he uses drugs, or
unknowingly comes in casual contact with a drug user. Simply borrowing a
pencil from a classmate that uses drugs will pass enough residue to render a
positive test and an angry parent. When we have statistics like – 90% of all
paper currency shows traces of cocaine, this test kit is quite foolish. Your
only defense is to continually clean everything you touch with disinfectants.
3.3 Gas Chromatography
De ned by Thein and Landry:
Gas chromatography uses a separation technique to divide the
urine extracts into the component parts. An inert gas carries
the urine through chromatographic columns, and the samples are
separated by their boiling temperature and by their anity for
the column. Compounds are identi ed by separation time, called
retention time. The retention time is unique and reproducible for
each drug in a given chromotographic column.
3.4 Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry
De ned by Thein and Landry:
The most precise procedure for detection of banned substances is
a combination of GC and MS. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
is a two-step process, where GC separates the sample
into its constituent parts, while MS provides the exact molecular
identi cation of the compounds. Compounds are separated
by GC and are then introduced, one at a time, into a mass spectrometer.
As the sample constituents enter the MS, they are bombarded
by electrons, which cause the compound to break up into
molecular fragments. The fragmentation pattern is reproducible
and characteristic, and is considered the “molecular- ngerprint”
of a speci c compound. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
is considered to be the most de nitive method for con rming the
presence of a drug in the urine and is approximately 100 to 1,000
times more sensitive than TLC. Selective ion monitoring has been
used to improve the GC/MS results. This procedure is the most
costly, averaging approximately $200 per sample to test.
The GC/MS is typically used to con rm “positive” EMIT test results.
GC/MS will indicate precisely what chemical is present. This is necessary
because the EMIT will only indicate whether something similar to what’s
being tested was found. The GC/MS is dicult and more costly, which is why
the EMIT is given rst. (Hewlett Packard produces the GC/MS equipment,
including computer, for about $50-75k depending on options.) Abstinence
and substitution are the only ways to defeat the GC/MS test. GC/MS is
very precise when done right. However, it’s still subject to human error.
For example, if the equipment isn’t cleaned well, the previous test sample
could get mixed with the next sample. According to Dr. Edward Cone, the
GC/MS is 99 percent accurate; not very accurate on a large scale when you
realize that 10 thousand out of every million will get false results. (more on
accuracy in section 3).
3.5 Hair testing
When THC metabolites are in the blood, they go through the blood vessels
in the head, and get ltered through the hair. THC metabolites remain in
the hair as a permanent record. The hair test costs several hundred dollars
($150-300) and is rarely given because urinalysis is cheaper (approximately
$65) and more accurate. (The hair test equipment and setup goes for over
a million). According to Je Nightbyrd, hair tests are “widely used in the
casino industry.” They cut 50 strands of hair from the scalp, and send it in
to the testing lab where they liquefy it. “A hair sample is disolved in a series
of solvents which extract the drug metabolites and then are analyzed via
GC/MS.” It can take from several hours to days just to extract metabolites.
Average hair grows 1/4 inch per month. Typically they just use hair one and
a half inches from the scalp; though some labs will take enough to test for up
to 3 years. The liquid is run through the most sensitive GC/MS machines
available, and can detect as little as 1 ng/mL! The hair test discriminates in
that detection is easier in dark hair. Colored people may be discriminated
against further because melanin is in their hair, which can be mistaken for
THC. However, there is con
icting data as to whether melanin can be detected
as THC. Psychemedics Corporation has a PDT90 kit for $75. This
home test kit is for parents that want to chop o a lock of their child’s hair
to nd out what drugs s/he is using. Kids- lock your bedroom doors at night
if your parents don’t trust your judgment on the drug issue.
Beating the hair test is extremely hard, and there are false positives.
Bleaching or dying your hair is rumored to work, but it doesn’t. I imagine
you can shave every hair on your body and claim that you’re a swimmer.
According to NORML, Aloe Rid by Nexus is a shampoo that will aid in
testing negative. Aloe Rid is available only in salons. Healthy Hair, from
Sampson Health Products, is another shampoo designed to beat the hair test.
Healthy Hair is sold in retail stores throughout Las Vegas. Keith Thrash from
Sampson Health Products reccommends precleansing with Aloe Rid prior to
using Healthy Hair. Healthy Hair is used in the morning and before going
to bed. Each session takes 20 minutes. According to Steve at Sampson
Health Products, two out of a thousand people failed the hair test when
using Healthy Hair. Byrd Labs is currently developing a shampoo to defeat
the hair test. Some have suggested treating hair with oil because THC is
oil based and oil soluble. However, there is no proven way to beat the hair
test, so it’s all heresay and guessing at this point. (If anyone has any success
with the shampoos or the swimmer excuse, please let me know). Swimming
and washing your hair removes toxins, and Keith Thrash recommends doing
both as much as possible. Fortunately, the hair test cannot be used alone as
evidence because there are no forensic standards. It can only be used when
substantiated by other evidence. Also, there are no intoxication standards. I
believe if you tested positive for the hair test that you would probably have
a good chance of ghting it. (BlockBuster Video uses the most up-to-date
equipment, and passing such a test can be dicult). It takes several months
of precleansing to beat the tests given by Psychemedics.
3.6 High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Usually used to detect anabolic steroids. De ned by Thein and Landry:
High-performance liquid chromatography is similar to GC, except
a liquid carries the sample through the chromotographic
columns and the columns are not placed in a heated compartment.
High-performance liquid chromatography is both sensitive
and speci c, and it is simpler and faster than GC. Gas chromatography
and HPLC are reliable methods for screening, and they allow
for simultaneous determination of a wide variety of di erent
compounds. High-performance liquid chromatography is used to
screen for urinary ca eine levels and has been used to con rm the
positive results obtained from other screening techniques. Some
steroids can be analyzed with this technique, whereas HPLC and
GC lack appropriate sensitivity to detect beta-adrenergic blockers.
3.7 ImmunoAssay
This procedure is best described in Thein and Landry’s word’s:
Immunoassays use antigen-antibody interactions to detect illegal
substances. Antibodies that bind selectively to certain drugs or
drug metabolites are chosen, and the sensitivity and the speci-
city of this test are only as good as the antibody chosen. The
binding is proportional to the amount of drug in the urine and
can be detected through enzymes, radioisotopes, or
compounds. With this technique, very small amounts of drug
can be detected in a very small amount of urine, although this
test may not di erentiate between speci c drugs within a class of
drugs. Immunoassay has yielded false-positive results with some
decongestants and nonsteroidal anti-in
ammatory drugs. Radiommunoassay
(RIA) and
uorescence polarization immunoassay
(FPIA) are speci c IA techniques currently being used. Radioimmunoassay
can detect some 17 alpha-methyl, 17 alpha-ethyl,
and 19-nortestosterone steroids despite its low speci city. Immunoassay
is both more sensitive and more speci c than TLC.
3.7.1 Radio ImmunoAssay (aka AbuScreen)
“Of all the screening methods . . . (EMIT, TLC, RIA), RIA is the best method
available.” The RIA test is applied the same way as the EMIT. “The only
di erence btw RIA and EMIT is that RIA uses radioactive iodine as the
detection mechanism rather than an enzyme NAD/NADH rxn which is detected
by a scintillation counter” [Anon1]. The scintillation counter is used
to measure the amount of radioactive particles present. Radioactivity is inversely
proportional to metabolite level. RIA tests are a little more sensitive
than the EMIT, and harder to beat. The most known user of the RIA test
is the US government; in particular, the US military. The EMIT is more
common because RIA produces radioactive waste, and radioactive waste is
dicult to deal with. The US government uses RIA because a “company
gives the government the instrumentation free in exchange for buying their
reagents (reagent rental contract).” Some non-government labs use the RIA,
so don’t be surprized if your pre-employment screening is a RIA rather than
an EMIT.
3.7.2 Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique
The EMIT is the cheapest, easiest to perform, and most common; also the
easiest to fail. It’s the easiest to pass if you’re well informed (ie. reading this
text). Most pre-employment screens will give you the EMIT rst; though
some businesses will surprise you with a GC/MS test up front (discussed
later). Unfortunately, there is no standard procedure to expect. (One who
has read this le and is well informed may still fail because of the random
nature of drug testing labs.) If you don’t know which urinalysis will be
administered, focus on beating the EMIT. If you pass the EMIT, you’re o
the hook. If you fail the EMIT, they’ll give you the con rmation GC/MS
test, which is extremely sensitive. Lewis Maltby, director of the Workplace
Rights Oce, said the EMIT test is wrong 25 to 30 percent of the time.
3.7.3 Fluorescence Polarization ImmunoAssay
No information yet available on this test.
3.8 PharmChek
A band-aid type patch is worn for a week or more to absorb perspiration. If
illicit drugs are used during the time the sweat patch is worn, the patch will
be positive when the lab tests it. The patch has a tamper-proof design – no
thanks to 3M, who manufactures the patches. (Don’t sweat it; we’ll nd a
way to tamper with the silly patch 🙂 PharmChem Laboratories Inc. created
the patch, and got market approval from the FDA. The FDA permitted the
patch for detecting cocaine, amphetamines, and opiates. They are working
on getting FDA clearance to use the patch to test for marijuana and PCP.
The FDA already gave permission to use it in the workplace. PharmChem
will sell the patch to law enforcement and drug rehabilitation agencies in
1996. Accuracy of the sweat patch remains unknown. No one has disclosed
any information reguarding how inaccurate this test is. Bad lab procedure
is a very big problem in the testing industry, and it’s hard to tell how prone
to human error the sweat patch test is.
3.9 TestCup
No details available yet. This new test by Roche involves urinating into a
cup, where the cup has an indicator on the side displaying what drugs are
3.10 Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC “involves adding solvent to urine to extract drugs and then comparing
color spots on a TLC plate to that of a standard” (Nightbyrd). Accuracy
is very poor, and this test is rarely used. A TLC kit called ToxiLab is
available. This kit has been abandoned for the most part, since EMIT has
been improved. Fortunately, it’s not used for con rmation anymore. Thein
and Landry’s de nition:
Thin-layer chromatography testing is based on the di erences in
the migration rate of various substances through a porous supporting
medium. The degree of migration and the color are
characteristic of certain drugs. Thin-layer chromatography can
demonstrate the presence of a drug, but this procedure cannot
specify the quantity of drug present. This technique is both time
consuming and nonspeci c, and provides only a positive or negative
response. Thin-layer chromatography is capable of detecting
only a limited number of substances 12 to 24 hours after ingestion,
resulting in a high number of false-negative results.
Chapter 4
Test Standards and Accuracy
The accuracy of drug testing is an area where I have decided to neglect
all statistics. Those who oppose drug testing provide numbers indicating a
high level of false positives. Those who favor drug testing provide numbers
indicating high levels of accuracy. The fact is that accuracy varies widely
from lab to lab. Generally speaking, NIDA labs are accurate. Clinton writes:
NIDA (The National Institute of Drug Abuse) is the government
organization responsible for regulating the drug-testing
industry. The vast majority of urine drug screens done these days
conform to NIDA specs, and ALL testing associated with the government
(department of transportation, etc.) complies with the
NIDA standard. It is NIDA that decides what the “safe” cuto s
are to avoid false positives….
Despite what you might hear on the net, urinalysis, if done
correctly, is a very accurate scienti c procedure. I know of no
labs that simply report the results of the initial EMIT screening
without con rming the sample on GC/MS. The fact is, labs
WANT you to test negative, because then they only have to run
an EMIT test on your urine (a few cents). If you test positive,
they must then con rm the positive result on GC/MS, which is
considerably more expensive. . . . Incidentally, the machine
which tests the hair is a relative of the GC/MS, but is FAR more
precise. It can accurately detect levels of THC in a solution that
are below 1 ng/mL!
CAP (College of American Pathologists) also certi es laboratories the
way NIDA does. NIDA keeps it’s labs in check by sending positive and negative
double-blind samples. Lab personnel does not know what samples came
from NIDA. If the lab results are wrong, NIDA may take away the labs certi
cation. Only labs that perform the GC/MS on site can be NIDA certi ed.
Labs that send samples to another laboratory for GC/MS con rmation are
ineligible for NIDA certi cation. “Drug testing when done properly with all
required controls and con rmation procedures is very accurate and reliable”
Not all labs are NIDA/CAP certi ed. Some labs do not properly and
thoroughly clean the GC/MS equipment. Some labs do not even do a GC/MS
con rmation! Some labs use cheap alternative methods to reduce expenses.
Many human errors occur in labs and cause inaccurate results. Some are
careless or irresponsible errors, and some errors are accidents. Human error
can ruin the results of ANY test, screening or con rmation GC/MS.
The only lab you should be concerned with is the one that is testing you.
Only federal jobs require NIDA standards. Your typical private employer
may use any lab s/he chooses, which would very likely be the least expensive.
Businesses don’t always choose NIDA labs that follow-up a positive screening
test with a con rmation GC/MS.
4.1 Procedures Implemented
In the workplace, an EMIT screening is typically used, with a CG/MS con-
rmation if the EMIT is positive. However, this is not a rule; employers can,
and some do, use unusual procedures. Some employers use the RIA, and
some use the hair test. The government often uses RIA. They may or may
not supervise the subject. Olympic athletes must be monitored by courier
after a competition. The courier stays with the athlete until the athlete
urinates, with a time frame of up to sixty minutes.
4.2 False Positives
No laboratory process is completely free from error. The GC/MS test is
virtually error free, but the EMIT is far from accurate. There are some
false positives you should avoid if you’re getting an EMIT test. Take this
seriously; false positives run high. If you know that there will be a GC/MS
con rmation test, you can disregard this section. It would be too lengthy to
list all of the false positives here. Je Nightbyrd’s “Conquering the Urine
Tests” pamphlet lists a majority of the false positives in detail. (If you are
clean, want to get back at the testing industry for conducting these absurd
tests, and know that there will be a con rmation test, you could consume
several false positives. This would force labs to pay for the high priced
GC/MS test, eventually drive up test expenses. You will still pass the test
as long as you do not use any true positives.)
4.2.1 Ibuprofen
Ibuprofen is a common pain reliever that (even in low dosages) used to cause
a false THC positive on the EMIT test. The EMIT has been changed to use
a di erent enzyme to eliminate false positives due to Ibuprofen. Ibuprofen
in very high doses will still interfere with both the EMIT and the GC/MS.
There is some con
icting data here because some sources say that the GC/MS
tests can distinguish between Ibuprofen and THC (as well as other over-thecounter
4.2.2 Cold Remedies, Pain Relievers, Hay Fever Remedies,
and Diet Pills
Decongestants and diet pills result in false positives for amphetamine use in
one third of the test samples given to 40 of the countries leading laboratories.
There are roughly 300 over-the-counter drugs that cause false positives on
the EMIT.
4.2.3 Antibiotics
Certain antibiotics (like Amoxicillin) are claimed to cause a positive for heroin
or cocaine. My expert source was unable to verify this, so I regret that there
is some uncertainty here.
4.2.4 Melanin (found in black skin)
Melanin is the brown pigment that protects your skin from UV rays. It
was raised as a discrimination issue in the 1980’s, and argued that melanin’s
molecular structure is similar to that of a THC metabolite. Subsequent
research revealed
aws in the data. Melanin was found to have no e ect on
THC metabolite testing.
4.2.5 DHEA
DHEA taken by AIDS patients will cause a false positive for anabolic steroid
4.2.6 Dental Treatment
Caine products (like novacaine) used in dentistry have been known to cause
false positives for cocaine.
4.3 True Positives (legitimate)
Some legal products actually contain small amounts of illegal chemicals. All
tests, including the GC/MS, will test you positive because the metabolites
derived from the true positive are identical to the metabolites of the illegal
drugs. One exception: poppy seeds will not cause a positive GC/MS
(explained below).
4.3.1 Poppy Seeds
Poppy seeds, usually on breads, contain traces of morphine, and lead to
positives for opiates. According to Dr. Grow, eating a pastry lled with
poppy seeds will bring results showing that you are a *high level* opiate
user. Harold Crossley, a nationally known chemical dependency expert, said
you would have to eat 100 poppy seed bagels to score a positive on a drug
test. When taken into account that very few poppy seeds are sprinkled on
bagels, you can see that poppy seeds from a hundred poppy seed bagels
will easily ll a single large pastry. Purim cookies, a Jewish food known as
Hamantashen, may have ve to six tablespoons of poppy seeds. A couple
Purim cookies may cause a positive test. Poppy seeds can be distinguished
from illicit drugs on the GC/MS test. Although poppy seeds have the same
metabolites as opium, these metabolites are shown to have di erent patterns
when viewed with the GC/MS.
4.3.2 Testosterone Supplements
Orchic extract (found in bull’s balls) will give a positive for anabolic steroid
use. It is a legitimate substance that causes the test to imply that you abuse
Chapter 5
Commercial Products vs.
Household Products
When I refer to “commercial products,” I am talking about substances that
were are sold speci cally for beating drug tests. Household products is everything
else (ie. bleach or water). Some people object to using commercial
products because they are just another instance of someone trying to cash in
on the “War on Drugs.” And that is my attitude when it comes to ine ective
commercial products, however, I praise the ones that work.
Commercial products are pricey and water alone tends to work for most.
I have put a (c) next to the commercial products to indicate that they are
developed speci cally for beating the test. Those that oppose them or live
in restricted areas (discussed below) can skip items with a (c).
5.1 Commercial Products and the Law
The state of Texas outlawed products which are sold for the sole purpose
of creating negative results on urine tests. Texas is the only state to my
knowledge that has the ban.
5.2 Money-back Guarantees
Ignore money-back guarantees. Companys that market to thousands of High
Times readers make so much, that a few returns from motivated users are
insigni cant. People could even get away with o ering a money-back guarentee
for Goldenseal because all the water that people are instructed to drink
with Goldenseal causes most of them to pass. Some companys do not keep
their word. A urinator who tested positive sent the lab results back, only to
be told that marijuana is illegal. He was not even compensated for buying a
failing product.
Chapter 6
Things Tested to Detect
Counter Measures
Laboratories know how easy it is to tamper with urine samples and alter the
results. Labs often test to nd out if the sample is legitimate.
6.1 Color
If a urine sample looks clear, the lab will suspect that it is watered down.
They cannot report it as positive, but they may reject the sample and inform
your employer that you tried to beat the test. If this happens, the sample
might as well be positive, because you won’t get hired. Take vitamin B
complex to color your urine yellow.
6.2 Temperature
Urine should be between 91 and 97 degrees. NIDA certi ed labs will verify
temperature. If the sample is out of the accepted temperature range, they
will suspect you added water to the cup, or used substitution. Disposable
pocket hand warmers (sold in department stores) will keep a urine sample
warm, provided that the urine is in a condom or douche bag.
6.3 Creatinine
Creatinine is a substance produced by vertebrates, and it shows up in urine. If
someone substitutes their urine with something other than urine, like Mountain
Dew, they will test negative for drugs. However the testee will most
likely not get away with it because Mountain Dew contains zero creatinine,
and labs test creatinine levels to ensure that the sample is valid. Creatinine
levels drop below normal when people dilute their urine. This tests to ensure
that the subject did not drink unusual amounts of water. An *accurate* creatinine
“clearance” test would require a urine and blood test 24 hours before
the drug test to determine the normal creatinine level for that individual.
This is almost never done. You should still be cautious because they do often
use the inaccurate method of comparing your creatinine level during the
drug test to an average. People who are drug-free sometimes lose their jobs
for having too low of a creatinine level.
6.3.1 How to Increase Creatinine Levels
Eating foods rich in protein like red meat will slightly increase creatinine
levels. There is no signi cant variation between vegatarians and armavors,
so the e ect protein has is little. Sexual activity also raises creatinine levels.
I doubt sexual activity in
uences creatinine level with much signi cance.
However, a vegetarian that does not have much sex should be concerned.
6.4 pH
pH is often changed when people spike their sample with household products.
Use caution when doping urine, pH is usually tested.
6.5 Speci c Gravity
An unusual speci c gravity indicates that a sample has been tampered with.
6.6. AGE 39
6.6 Age
Age can not be tested using urine. There is a rumor that approximate age
can be detected in urine, and is tested in medical insurance exams. It’s a
6.7 Gender
Gender cannot be tested either. As with age, there is a rumor that gender
can be detected in urine, and is tested in medical insurance exams. This is
another myth. It may be argued that a pregnancy test can be used to detect
the gender of the urine provider, but the same test is used to detect prostate
cancer in males.
Chapter 7
Producing Clean Urine
THC is fat soluble, and it gets stored in your fat cells. Cleaning it out of
your lipid tissue is very dicult. Many herbal products claim to clean out
your system, yet they do nothing to remove THC byproducts from fat cells.
A study was done in Germany in 1993 on 50 of the most common herbs used
by people trying to pass the test. All 50 herbs failed to cause a negative.
Unfortunately, this rumor will not die. Goldenseal is useless; yet it’s the
most common thing for people to use. The only way to extract THC from
fat cells is to exercise (5.8). Fat cells secrete fat with THC metabolites at
a constant rate, regardless of what herbs you consume. You may be able
to temporarily rid THC metabolites from your bloodstream, or dilute your

uids to yield a larger urine/THC ratio, but your bloodstream will continue
collecting THC metabolites from fat. Your urine will continue collecting
THC metabolites from your bloodstream.
7.1 Dilution
Hyper saturating your body with
uids will dilute metabolites possibly below
the 50 ng/mL threshold, depending on your metabolism. Be aware that
creatinine levels are often tested, and will show that the sample has been
diluted. Diluting your sample will also produce clear urine, with virtually
no yellow color. They will assume that you’ve diluted your sample, and they
may reject your sample on the basis of color alone. It’s only necessary to
start drinking just before the test. Those who drown themselves in
uid days
before a test are only causing unnecessary discomfort. Those who stay up
all night drinking don’t have any better chance than one who drinks heavily
rst thing in the morning. Get up early if the test is early, but don’t lose
sleep over a test that is given in the daytime.
7.2 Water
Drink at least eight hefty glasses of
uid (preferably water) just prior to the
test. Many people start drinking water several days before the test; which
is useless. Water does *not* clean any THC metabolites out of your system
because THC is not water soluble. Water only dilutes urine temporarily. Do
not over do it; you can get water intoxication. People can actually overdose
and even die from water intoxication. It’s very hard to do, and you’ll vomit
before anything gets serious.
7.3 Creatinine Level
Eating red meat will boost creatinine levels. If you eat a lot of red meat for
the 3 days prior to the test, your creatinine level will be normal, and the lab
won’t know that you’ve diluted your urine sample.
7.4 Vitamin B
Color your sample yellow by taking 50 to 100 milligrams of vitamin B. Many
vitamins will work, but B-2 or B-12 (found in B-complex vitamins) are the
most e ective, though some will argue that vitamin C is better. This will also
help if you plan to dope your sample (section 7). This does not guarantee
that dilution will work. Diluted samples have been red-
agged when speci c
gravity and creatinine levels are tested and below normal. If you’re taking
vitamins at the last minute, check to see if they’re time release. If so, crush
it up and consume the powder. Coloring your urine is not all that important
because it is normal for people to have clear urine even when they don’t
consume much
7.5 Diuretics
Diuretics make people urinate frequently. Co ee, cranberry juice, beer, iced
tea, herbal tea, and Pepsi are all good diuretics. Grapes are known to be
very good diuretics. Diuretics without ca eine or alcohol are recommended
because ca eine and alcohol have negative side e ects. Cranberry juice is also
the cheapest. Avoid salts. Herbal diuretics do better than home remedies
like juices.
7.5.1 Ultimate Blend (c)
This product used to be known as Test Free, but the name was changed.
Ultimate Blend is a diuretic designed for the test, but works no better than
other diuretics. Ultimate Blend is sold by Zydot Unlimited Inc.
7.5.2 Detoxify Carbo Clean (c)
This is a very new product, untested by a third party. It claims to absorb
toxins, however, experts say that absorbing THC metabolites from fat cells
is impossible. Here is a copy of the ad from Party Hut Enterprizes:
[Detox] Is a scienti cally formulated carbohydrate blend that
works by absorbing toxins and imuurities[sic]. It has been featured
in High Times, and we are so con dent of the results that
we are o ering a double-your-money-back guarantee for any failed
results. This is the most complete program for the cleanest results!
Precleanse ™ herbal capsules are enclosed in every box
of Carbo Clean. This extra advantage helps you begin cleansing
the evening before the deadline. B-Complex tablets complete the
7.5.3 Naturally Klean Herbal Tea (c)
Naturally Klean claims to clear any drug metabolites for a few hours after
taking. Drink this shortly before the test. Naturally Klean was also listed
as a drug screen in previous versions, but according to Nightbyrd, “it will
do NOTHING to help you pass a urine test;” with the exception that it will
dilute your urine. You can get Naturally Klean from Martha Butter eld-Jay
Foundation or J&J Enterprizes. An anonymous user provided the ingredients
list: dandelion root, burdock root, red clover top, chamomile
ower, alfalfa
leaf, licorice root, slippery elm inner bark, hibiscus
ower, dog rose hips,
natural fruit
avors. Dandelion root is said to be the e ective diuretic.
7.5.4 Goldenseal
Goldenseal is a plant and you can get either the root or the leaves in pill
form. It’s also a liquid or tea. The liquid is rumored to absorb slower
than the capsules. Goldenseal is a diuretic, but works no better than other
diuretics. Furthermore, NORML reports that Goldenseal is now being tested
for. Taking Goldenseal is a foolish waste.
7.5.5 Certa or Certo
This is an untested diuretic. Certa “has something to do with canning. Some
people swear by it. Trouble is, it’s always somebody else, a third party not
present during the conversation, who uses it” (Pearson). I’ve heard rumors
about people who smoked right up to the day before the test, consumed fruit
pectin (a canning substance similar to Certa), and passed the test. However,
there hasn’t been any tests to validate those claims. Will someone with a
lab at their disposal please test this stu ?
7.5.6 Vales Original Formula
Another herbal remedy like Goldenseal. It does nothing. The water you
must take with it does everything Vales claims to do.
7.5.7 Lasix
Take an 80 milligram dose of prescription diuretic lasix (furosemide). Prescription
diuretics are the most potent. Some over the counter diuretics will
color your urine blue and should be avoided. WARNING! -Diuretics can be
harmful to people with kidney problems, pregnant women, and diabetics.-
7.6. VINEGAR 45
7.6 Vinegar
There is a myth that drinking vinegar will mask drugs; it won’t. However,
vinegar lowers the pH of urine. Amphetamines are excreted up to 3 times as
fast when urine is acidi ed. So vinegar could reduce the detection time period
for amphetamines. The e ects on detection time are generally insigni cant,
and it in my opinion it really wouldn’t be worth it to drink vinegar. If you
do decide to drink vinegar, I hear it’s easiest to get a shot glass and do it in
shots. It will cause diarrhea.
7.7 Dexatrim
There is a myth that taking phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim’s active ingredient)
will work. It won’t. In fact, Dexatrim is a false positive, and may work
against you. The myth may have originated because Dexatrim was claimed
to speed metabolism. However, the fact that Dextrim causes a positive makes
it useless.
7.8 Fiber
A high ber diet will help by redirecting fat soluble metabolites to the colon
rather than bladder. “THC is eliminated primarily in the stool via bile acids.
Both EMIT and RIA detect a secondary metabolite which is reabsorbed from
the intestines. Thus a person with a high ber diet will excrete a majority
of THC [metabolites] in the stool” [Anon1]. A ber-based laxitive will also
help by binding bile-acids. Use caution. Fiber laxitives can alter one’s bowel
schedule and lead to dependancy.
7.9 Vitamin Lecithin
A recent method that’s still under development is to take vitamin lecithin.
This vitamin breaks down your stored fat and disperses it into your blood
stream, to help clean out drugs that store themselves in lipid tissue, such as
THC. NORML recommends taking Lecithin right up to the day of the test.
To me it sounds as though this would work against you because by putting
THC back in your blood stream, you are increasing metabolites in the urine.
Someone has suggested that you take vitamin lecithin on a regular basis to
clean lipids of THC metabolites. Then quit before the test, which seems to
make more sense. It MAY be useless to take lecithin supplements orally. I’ve
been told that the digestive system breaks it down too much before entering
the blood stream. Most aren’t willing to take vitamins intravenously. (If
you do decide to take lecithin, you might as well take B5 with it. B5 aids
in the process of turning lecithin into acetylcholine.) Another solution is to
take nutrients which help the body manufacture lecithin. Lipotrophics cause
the liver to produce lecithin. A good source for this information is Austin
Nutritional Research page.
7.10 How to Give A Clean Sample
Don’t give urine from your rst urination of the day. It’s the dirtiest, and can
be heavily lled with metabolites. Urinate a couple of times before giving a
test sample. Also, don’t give the beginning or end of the stream. Piss in the
toilet, then quickly stop and go in the cup. Stop, and shift back to the toilet
for the last portion. Only give a midstream sample. Just be sure to give 60
7.11 Exercise
Athletes have a big advantage over normal civilians. When fat is burned,
THC byproducts are released into the blood. This is the only way to get
THC metabolites out of lipid tissue. “Normal living will burn them slowly,
as your fat reserves get turned over” (Dr. Grow). Due to an athletes high
metabolic rate, THC moves through an athletes system signi cantly faster.
Exercising between drug tests will clean THC metabolites from the system
at a faster rate, thus lowering the detection period. It is important to stop
burning fat cells near test time. On test day, it doesn’t matter what’s in your
lipid tissue. What’s in your blood and urine does matter. Exercise increases
the amount of THC metabolites in the urine; so quit exercising a week before
the test. Be lazy, and eat big. This will put the body in an anabolic fatstoring
stage. At this point, the “buried” THC metabolites won’t escape
and go the the urine. There are drugs that will increase metabolism the way
exercise does, but these are the same drugs that they are usually testing for.
7.12. BETA-2 AGONISTS 47
Exercise should only be considered when the subject knows that he or she
will not be given a pop quiz in the near future.
7.12 Beta-2 Agonists
Studies have shown that Clenbuterol reduces fat, which would help rid lipid
tissue of THC metabolities. Clenbuterol also increases metabolism. No studies
have directly shown that Clenbuterol will help pass a drug test. However,
provided that it reduces fat, I would assume that the fat breakdown would
result in less fat soluble substances in the system. Caution: Clenbuteral is
labeled as a performance enhancer, and it’s on the banned list for athlete
testing. If are being tested as an athlete, avoid Clenbuterol!
7.13 Beta-3 Agonists
Beta-3 agonists are drugs that stimulate the beta-3 andrenergic receptors on
brown fat cells. The beta-3 andrenergic receptor is located on the surface of
fat cells, and controls the amount of fat the cell releases into the bloodstream.
When brown fat is stimulated, white fat is burned (converted into heat).
Many people have mutant beta-3 andrenergic receptors, causing calories to
be burned too slowly; thus leading to obesity. These people will bene t
most from beta-3 agonist drugs. If the drug works as claimed, I believe it
would reduce the detection time of fat soluble drugs by continually excreting
metabolites into the bloodstream at a faster pace. As with vitamin lecithin
and exercise, you would take beta-3 agonists between tests, and quit a couple
days prior to the test. Beta-3 agonists have been in the development phase
for the past 13 years. One rm is already testing a beta-3 drug in early
clinical trials. It’s not on the market yet.
7.14 Low Dosaging
If you’re an athlete and get tested for steroids, you can still use anabolic
steroids and possibly beat the cuto . The body naturally produces testosterone
(a steroid), and small amounts of testosterone show up in urine by
default. Some athletes are able to keep their steroid intake low enough to
indicate a natural level of steroids. A study was done nding that 67recommended
amount, and they stack (meaning they take two or more di erent
kinds of steroids). Steroids are only meant to be used in small amounts to
begin with. Anything over a normal dose goes unused. Also, no study has
shown stacking to be bene cial.
Chapter 8
Drug Screens
Some chemicals taken orally supposedly will mask traces of drugs in urine.
Advertisers like to present their diuretic as a masking agent to make the
sale. Consequently, diuretics are often mistaken for drug screens. Most
herbal products claim to do a lot more than they actually do. Do not be
fooled by herbal potions that claim to
ush or absorb toxins.
8.1 Drug Screens That Work
8.1.1 Aspirin
According to Je Nightbyrd, there is testing industry data that taking 4 aspirins
a few hours prior to the test might help you. “. . . aspirin interferes
with the Syvia [sic] EMIT assay. It seems that aspirin absorbs at the same
wavelength that NAD does which is how it interferes with the assay” (Clin
Chem 34 (90) 602-606). Two reliable sources have tested aspirin and found
it to interfere with the EMIT. In the future they will try to nd a way to circumvent
this test
aw. Until then, I certainly recommend taking advantage
of the situation and using aspirin.
8.2 Drug Screens That Do Not Work
8.2.1 Goldenseal
Goldenseal has shown to work on occasion. However, some labs are reportedly
testing for Goldenseal. Goldenseal is very unreliable, and California
NORML advises against using it. Goldenseal (as a screen) only works on the
TLC test, which is not used anymore.
8.2.2 Niacin
Niacin has been shown to work on occasion. Byrd Labs tests conclude that
niacin doesn’t work at all. In other words, something else probably caused a
negative, not the niacin.
8.2.3 Zinc Sulfate
Zinc sulfate is claimed to bond with THC metabolites, and because it’s a
solid, it gets passed as stool rather than urine. Je Nightbyrd says it does
nothing. Anne Watters Pearson said “zinc sulfate is no miracle drug for
pissing. Forget it.”
8.3 Untested Drug Screens
8.3.1 Puri-Blend (c)
Puri-Blend is claimed to “block” metabolites from entering the bloodstream
and to “neutralize” all drugs in the urine. I don’t believe it myself. Sold in
GNC stores.
8.3.2 The Stu (c)
The Stu is claimed to absorb toxins in the body and block detection of true
and false positives. Sold by J&J Enterprises.
Chapter 9
Doping Samples
“Doping” samples consists of spiking the sample with di erent chemicals.
Chemicals that defeat immunoglobulin/antigen binding will cause a false
negative on the EMIT. Most of these additives only work on the standard
EMIT screening, not on RIA or GC/MS tests. In many cases, passing the
EMIT is good enough, because they will never do a RIA or GC/MS con rmation
on a sample that showed negative. I should also add that you may
be watched, so don’t rely on this method. You should be able to nd out
ahead of time if you will be supervised. Some of the following additives alter
the urine’s pH, and most labs now test the pH to see if the sample has
been adulterated. If you are subject to random tests, you may want to carry
an additive in your wallet. Additives are illegal in the state of Texas, and
commercial vendors will not ship their product to Texas addresses.
9.1 E ective Additives
The following additives are recommended.
9.1.1 Bleach (powdered)
Chlorinated bleach will test negative, and it’s the best household additive. In
an emergency, Je Nightbyrd recommends adding unscented bleach crystals
to a diluted sample. It’s recommended to grind the powdered bleach to a
ner grain. 1/4 teaspoon is recommended for a 60cc sample. For liquid
bleach, add six to ten drops. Bleach will throw the pH outside the normal
body range; so it may be apparent that the sample was tampered with. Some
bleaches foam or leave residue, so experiment with di erent brands before
selecting which to use.
9.1.2 Klear (c)
Klear is a powdered additive. Je Nightbyrd, Ann Waters Pearson, and
Party Hut Enterprises currently endorses Klear. It was, until recently, the
most advanced and least detectable. However, some labs can now detect
Klear. Due to the popularity of Klear and many cases where people were
caught using it, Je Nightbyrd recommends reverting back to UrinAid. Klear
will clear up THC metabolites, as well as nicotine byproducts on the EMIT.
If methamphetamines are present, Klear won’t help. Klear is only designed
to work on the EMIT. It will also work on the RIA when there is a good
time span between the urine getting spiked, and getting tested. If the RIA
test is not performed on-site, there is a good chance Klear will cause a false
negative. Klear can be purchased from Martha Butter eld-Jay Foundation
and Party Hut Enterprizes now carries. You can also get Klear direct from
Klear (the organization).
9.1.3 Water
You can dilute your sample heavily with water. Don’t confuse this with
drinking water; you can also add water directly to the sample. Be sure to use
hot water (between 91 and 97 degrees), they will likely take the temperature
of the sample. This method is not dependable because some facilities have
the sink water shut o to prevent people from doing this. If there is running
water, they may listen to you. If you turn on the water, make it sound like
you’re washing your hands or something.
9.2 Ine ective Additives
These additives are not recommended. Many of these may give negative test
results, but are not recommended for other reasons.
9.2.1 Ammonia
2 ounces will render the sample negative. The pH is altered, and the ammonia
odor is strong enough to be recognized.
9.2.2 Blood
It’s been said that a few drops of blood will x your sample; it does not.
9.2.3 Draino
Draino will test negative. However, Draino is NOT recommended because it
doesn’t work well even when half a teaspoon is added. It colors the sample
blue, and will put the pH outside the normal body range. Draino foams, and
leaves metal specs that must be removed.
9.2.4 Goldenseal
A myth. Goldenseal put directly in the sample doesn’t alter test results. It
only turns the specimen brown. Do not dope your urine with Goldenseal.
Goldenseal is more commonly used as a screen, to be consumed. See Goldenseal
under section 7.2.1.
9.2.5 Hydrogen Peroxide
Industrial grade will destroy half the THC metabolites. Household strength
hydrogen peroxide does nothing. 30THC metabolite into something that
would not react in the screening test and would show up as something different
by GC/MS” [Anon1].
9.2.6 Lemon Juice
Lemon juice is a myth; it will not change the test results.
9.2.7 Liquid Soap
Will test negative, but makes the specimen cloudy, which certainly draws
9.2.8 Mary Jane’s SuperClean 13 (c)
This additive was e ective for a very short period. SuperClean had to be
strong enough to beat the tests, but weak enough to be undetectable. It failed
to cause a false-negative in 3tests. In fact, it also causes a false-positive on
the EMIT for alcohol! Don’t use it.
9.2.9 Purifyit (c)
Imported from Europe, Party Hut Enterprises sells Purifyit with a moneyback
guarantee. PHE claims there have been no returns. Oklahoma NORML
refuses to endorse this product because it has
unked too many truck drivers.
9.2.10 Sodium Nitrate
This is more e ective than table salt (below), but dissolves poorly.
9.2.11 Table Salt
Two tablespoons of salt will test negative, but puts the density out of normal
range. Residue can also be seen at the bottom of the cup.
9.2.12 UrinAid (c)
UrinAid, produced by Byrd Labs, is very potent and works every time for
masking pot and nicotine, but not cocaine or heroin. They have recently
developed a test solely to detect UrinAid. UrinAid is tested for in 5this
product because it’s “too detectable.”
9.2.13 Vinegar
Adding vinegar to your sample will test negative, but also drops the pH. In
fact, lowering the pH is what causes the sample to test negative. “If the urine
is extremely acidic or alkaline the antigen-antibody reaction will proceed at
a slower rate which COULD produce a false negative” [Anon1]. This method
is not recommended because if you are lucky and lower the pH enough to
produce a negative, there’s a chance that the pH itself will also be tested.
9.2.14 Visine
This is debatable. Byrd Labs concluded that Visine does not work. Clinton
said that the lab he worked in tested Visine, and concluded that Visine works
every time as a false negative for the EMIT. It can be detected due to inability
of the sample to foam.
9.2.15 WD40
Another myth. WD40 can only do harm.
9.3 Untested Additives
9.3.1 Papain
This is a papaya enzyme available over the counter. It is not known whether
this does anything. Dr. Grow said that Papain is an antibody to THC,
and in theory may destroy THC when added to the urine sample. However,
positive urine doesn’t actually contain THC; it contains THC byproducts.
Papain has not been tested, and may or may not work.
Chapter 10
This method works for every urine test, every time (provided that some
conditions are met). You simply give them clean urine (not yours). This
works very well if you are not supervised. If you are going to be supervised,
try to talk them out of it. Someone told me they were going to be monitored,
and they said “I don’t want you to fuckin’ watch me piss!” So the supervisor
waited outside; probably with his/her ear to the door to listen for opening
containers. Members in active duty are often watched as the urine
ows from
source to destination (but substitution will even work on this test, as you will
nd out). Abbie Ho man, author of “Stealing This Urine Test,” suggested
leaving a few drops of urine on the seat or on your shoe for as “an added
measure of authenticity.”
10.1 Substitution Methods
There are three methods, but two of them are painful, and you have to be
determined to use them. The most common way to sneak in urine is in a
concealed container.
10.1.1 Concealed Container
Simply conceal the urine in a container. The rst time you are alone with
the container they give you, dump in your concealed urine. Be sure you can
quietly open the container; the lab personnel may be just outside the door
listening. You may be required to change into a gown. If so, a condom or
douche bag holding the sample and taped around the thigh can be concealed
under the gown. You can also run a plastic line from a
exible container
and tape it to your urination equipment (to be gender neutral), and even
piss under supervision. Females have been known to keep a condom with the
urine sample in the vagina, and prick it with a sharp ngernail to piss under
supervision. Be sure to keep the sample between 91 and 97 degrees.
10.1.2 Injection
There is a way to use substitution even when you are under the strictest supervision.
Athletes trying to pass tests for anabolic steroids have been known
to empty their bladders, and have the substituted urine injected directly into
their bladders via needle. It was shown in a motion picture like “Wildcats” I
believe. While theoretically possible, it’s painful and subject to infection. It
would certainly be the most senseless way to get clean urine into the testees
bladder. If this must be done, catheterization should be used.
10.1.3 Catheterization
First void your bladder as you would with injection. Run a thin plastic tube
to the bladder. (Males must insert the tube into the opening of the penis, go
through the urethra and into the bladder.) Catheterization done on females
is not as unpleasant as it is for males. Then inject the clean urine into the
bladder via catheter. Catheterization is less painful, safer, and more e ective.
Infection is still possible.
10.2 Where to Get Clean Urine
10.2.1 Urine From A Donor
You can substitute someone else’s urine. Ask your urine donor (hopefully
a friend you can trust) what drugs they’ve taken in the last month. They
may have taken a false positive (or a true positive for that matter). Before
the test, the examiner will likely ask you to list everything you’ve taken. If
the urine ages beyond 18 hours, deterioration becomes noticable and the lab
may suspect something.
10.2.2 Powdered Urine
If you don’t trust your friend’s sample, or don’t have any clean friends,
you can get powdered urine from Martha Butter eld-Jay Foundation. It’s
produced by Byrd Labs, and supposedly works perfectly; however, I got
MBJF’s powdered urine, and it did not specify the age or gender of the
original sample. Powdered urine must be prepared ahead of time. If there is
a period of time that you are clean, you can make powdered urine from your
own supply.
10.2.3 .1 Making Your Own Powdered Urine
Urinate in a glass container. Let it evaporate. Then scrape the inside for
the concentrate. Just mix it with water before the test, and the sample will
have the correct speci c gravity, pH, color, etc.
10.2.4 Dog Urine
I heard from Dr. Grow that dog urine (of all things) can be substituted,
and will pass the test! However, I don’t know how an age, gender, pH, or
creatinine test would result. Someone was able to use dog urine for several
months to pass the test. This subsection assumes you have a clean dog. I
know my dog’s urine wouldn’t pass; he eats more weed than humans do.
It would make more sense to use human urine, but dog urine provides a
workable substitution in an emergency.
Chapter 11
Stealing Urine
Speaking of stealing, people have been known to get away with stealing their
sample from the tray among many other urine samples. In the case that I
heard, the person being tested never got the test results, and was hired for
the job that he was tested for. They wouldn’t dare ask someone to re-test
because they “lost” his/her urine sample. Don’t expect this method to work
if you are being tested for the military or if you are on parole; they have no
problem violating your rights repeatedly.
Chapter 12
If You Fail
If you fail the test, raise hell. Failing the drug test has been known to make
a quiet person go ballistic. You will be interviewed by a medical review
ocial (MRO), who would try to nd out why you tested positive. MRO’s
are NOT impartial. An MRO is an employee of the lab, and is there for
quality control. They are also there to protect the lab by coercing the court
into thinking that the person who failed is a drug abuser. “Anything you
say to an MRO can and will be used against you” (RDW). If you ght it,
your lawyer “can subpoena the pro ciency testing records of the laboratory
for review” [Anon1]. These questions should be asked about the lab you are
 How does the lab handle samples?
 Are they NIDA/CAP certi ed?
 Do they participate in appropriate pro ciency testing?
 Where are their track records in the pro ciency testing program?
 Have they ever failed a pro ciency test?
 What are the quali cations of the technical sta performing the test?
 What technologies do they use to screen and con rm?
“Conquering the Urine Tests” provides additional legal advice that will
help you before taking a test, and if you fail a test.
Many employers no longer show lab results to employees. They just get
rejected if seeking employment. Elderly employees are getting red for failing
the test; incidentally losing all of their pension bene ts.
Laura Gibson, a medical doctor on the internet, tested positive and was
not hired. She had a poppy seed bagel that morning, not knowing it was a
false positive. She fought it to the point where they just decided to throw
out the results and hire her anyway. But don’t go taking it to court; it’s
virtually impossible to win this case.
If you’re an adult, contact ACLU. If you’re a child, don’t bother; ACLU
won’t do anything for children who fail the drug test. Then mail me at and tell me what you tried so I can use that to help
others. Many people ask for advice before the test, then do not report back.
Chapter 13
Who Drugtests?
In general, employers, parol ocers, probation ocers, police, health insurance
companies, government agencies, the military, parents, and athletic
organizations drug test.
13.1 Speci cally, Which Companies Test, and
Which Do Not?
There are too many companies to list in this document. An online searchable
database called The Non-testers List1 maintains a current list of companies
that drug test and companies that do not.
The data contained in this list comes from reports by Internet users. So
if you have rst hand experience with a company, you should report it to
the list operator. If you are drug tested by a company that is not listed,
you can submit a report to the list operator, who will add it. If you have a
good experience with a company that does not violate your privacy, please
also report it to the list operator, who will provide good publicity for the
The usenet Just-Say-No-To-Piss-Tests Project2 used to maintain a similar
list of the drug testing policies of varies companies, but it has not been
updated since 1994.
1more information provided in section A.2
2more information provided in section A.2
Chapter 14
Politics, Ethics, and Principles
of Drug Testing
14.1 Why is Drug Testing Legal?
There are six stages to the policymaking process:
Issue Identi cation Some event, persion, or group calls attention to a
problem that needs government action” [Gitel, p.412].
Agenda Setting The issue or problem is seriously considered by the policymaking
institution” [Gitel, p.413].
Policy Formation Someone must develop a proposal or program that can
address the issue” [Gitel, p.413].
Policy Adoption includes e orts to obtain enough support so that a proposal
can become the government’s stated policy” [Gitel, p.414].
Policy Implementation The carrying out of policy mandates through
public programs and actions.” [Gitel, p.415].
Policy Evaluation Looking at government actions and programs to see
whether goals have been achieved to assess a policy’s e ectiveness and
eciency” [Gitel, p.416].
We are still at the rst stage{ issue identi cation. Most people are not
even aware of the drug testing issue. Many people still believe that drug
testing detects impairment, and few are aware of the better alternatives.
You might ask why the Constitution has not protected us from this privacy
invasion to begin with. Drug testing is an unreasonable search, and
it forces people to incriminate themselves. However, the Constitution does
not apply to private organizations. This means when an employer searches
you unreasonably, the government does not have to protect you using the
Constitution as a basis.
In cases where the government drug tests, it does violate the 4th and 5th
14.2 The Workplace
It comes down to these values. An employer’s right to know who s/he is
hiring stands in con
ict with an individual’s right to privacy. I wrote this
paper because I value the right to privacy more.
I also believe people should have the right to consume any substance
they want (without limits), given that they are knowledgeable about that
chemical. Employers, like anyone, have been a ected by the Reefer Madness
Movement. The government pushed massive amounts of misinformation
throughout communities and schools, and employers are not informed
enough yet to dictate what drugs will harm the workplace.
The only e ective way to select workers is to evaluate their performance
on the job.
First understand that drugs can actually improve performance. Aspirin
relieves pain, allowing a worker to continue. Marijuana (when consumed
on the job) makes repetitive factory oriented work more interesting, which
lengthens a workers attention span. Marijuana will actually make some people
more alert. After intensive testing, someone I know can solve the Rubix
Cube 20 seconds faster when stoned. (not scienti c proof, yet interesting).
Stimulants will keep workers productive at the end of long work days.
Phil Smith summarizes an article in March 1990 Scienti c American
[The article] suggested that workers who tested positive for
marijuana only: 1) cost less in health insurance bene ts; 2) had
a higher than average rate of promotion; 3) exhibited less absenteeism;
and 4) were red for cause less often than workers who
did not test positive. Since marijuana is the most common illicit
14.3. ATHLETICS 69
drug used by adults, and the one detected in up to 90 percent
of all “positive” drug tests (half of which are false), this fact has
radical implications for current public and employer policies.
I could hardly believe what I was reading, but this article did carry signi
cant statistical evidence.
I see greater negative e ects in drug testing than in drug use. In my
opinion, drug testing is un-American because guilt is assumed until the test
proves innocence. The peoples’ civil liberties are su ering. This particular
privacy intrusion costs businesses $1.2 billion a year for urinanalysis of their
If the negative e ects of drug use begin to show in the worker’s performance,
then let it be unsatisfactory performance that leads to corrective
action, not suspicion of an unpopular lifestyle.
Nightbyrd has “counseled several, very straight, elderly workers – close
to retirement – who were red and lost their pension bene ts because they
‘failed their drug test'” (Je Nightbyrd).
14.3 Athletics
Bernard Williams of the Philadelphia Eagles failed the drug test for marijuana.
He was suspended from the NFL for six games for using a drug that
does not enhance performance. If anything, marijuana would detract from
an athletes performance. Let the coach judge Williams performance.
The U.S. Supreme court just ruled June 1995 that public high schools
can require drug test for all student athletes. Many high schools already
do random searches on students; not for weapons, but for drugs. After
all, the Constitution has failed to protect children in the classroom, why
not expand? Students have lost 1st, 4th, and 5th amendment rights, and I
think it is absurd. We have patriotic history teachers telling children of their
Constitutional rights, yet children’s rights are not protected on campus. Kids
get kicked out of school for questioning rules that violate the Constitution.
14.4 Parenting
Now it is becoming commonplace for parents to drug test their children.
Perfect; let’s break up the families; cut down those lines of communication
and sneak around spying on our kids. Let’s violate the child’s privacy. We
use DARE like the Salem witch hunts { to get children to turn their parents.
Now with DrugAlert, parents have a weapon to use on their kids.
14.5 Discrimination Factor
It is important to consider the discrimination factor. People with dark skin
may fail the urine test due to the false positive melanin. Drugs are detected
easier in dark haired people when the hair test is used [Berns].
14.6 The Alternatives
Not all employers are Orwellian in nature. Many employers do not care
what you do at home in your o -time; they just want to ensure that you are
performing your best when you are at work. Out of ignorance, they think
the way to ensure high performance is to test for drug use. Obviously it’s
There is an alarming number false negatives and false positives in the
drug testing industry. That’s a fact. And what it means is that competent,
law abiding workers are unfairly being denied employment and losing jobs.
The employers evaluation of the employees competency is dependent on the
competency of the lab. Even when the lab is competent, there are still false
positives due to other factors, all of which are outside the control of the
The fact that there are false negatives can lead to extremely severe disasters
in safety critical applications. For example, the case below explained
by an anonymous user:
I’m the Director of a program that monitors nurses and other
health professionals with chemical dependency. We recently had
a nurse anesthetist who had clean screens for over six months
and we approved her to return to anesthesia practice. Her rst
week on the job, two of her patients experienced complications
during surgery because of her impaired practice and ended up in
ICU in critical condition. I don’t know if either one will regain
neurological function. The nurse went back to treatment and we
asked her what happened. She had been drinking and using the
entire time. . .
So we have a situation where people assume that because someone passes
a drug test, then they must be safe. The fact is, an airline pilot can snort
a line of cocaine ve minutes before a drug test and pass no problem; then
step into the cockpit for a couple hour
ight and be severely impaired.
It is impairment we want to test for { not lifestyle preference. This
is where performance impairment tests comes in. Impairment tests use a
computer to assess the employees hand-eye coordination, and a variety of
other variables that are related to the task, not the lifestyle of the employee.
The test only takes 30 seconds. It is superior to drug testing in terms of
cost, timeliness and accuracy of results, and overall liability” [Fine].
Now suppose a surgeon nds out his fourteen year old daughter is pregnant,
then has to stay up all night with his sick two year old. He is in no
condition to work the next morning; especially after just discovering that his
stock took a dive as well. If he goes into work anyway, he will pass a drug
test, but not the impairment test.
We are sacri cing too many important rights by allowing drug testing to
continue. Until this unjust drug testing frenzy is put to an end, children,
workers, military service people, and parolees need to learn how to protect
themselves from the drug test.
14.7 How Can I Combat Drug Testing?
14.7.1 As a job seeker
Only consider employment from ethical companies. Support the companies
that care about you enough to respect your privacy. If you decide to work
for someone who drug tests, you are actively supporting their disrespectful
privacy policy; you are actively supporting lifestyle discrimination, and you
are actively supporting the drug testing industry { even if you use techniques
in this paper to beat the test. If you seek employment from a company you
are not sure about, and discover that they drug test, then decline the test and
explain that you will not tolerate having your privacy violated and dignity
stripped. Tell them you are drug free, and make it clear to them that they
lost a good worker because of their intrusive policy.
14.7.2 As an employee
If you already have a job, then go to The Non-testers List 1 and verify that
the company you work for is accurately listed. If it is not, then add it to
either the good list or the black list. Ensuring the accuracy of this database
is important to the cause.
If you work for a company that drug tests, consider working for a respectful
employer instead.
14.7.3 As an employer
Whatever you do, do not drug test! Respect the privacy of your employees
lifestyle, and do it with pride. Some companies that do not drug test post
bulletins around the workplace which proudly state the companies privacy
policy. Also, be sure to reward yourself by adding your company to The
Non-Testers List 2 for free advertizing and positive publicity.
As an employer who has to manage safety critical applications, do not use
drug tests to test for impairment. It does not work. This strategy leads to the
elimination of drug-free workers (in cases of false positives), and it also fails
to catch workers who are impaired (false negatives). False negatives can lead
to disasters. Use impairment tests such as that developed by Performance
Factors 3. Impairment tests are not intrusive, they are more cost e ective and
take less time to administer, and they test impairment rather than lifestyle.
14.7.4 As a juror
If you ever serve as a juror for a case where someone is being charged for a
drug o ense, and a drug test is used as evidence, be aware of jury nulli cation.
If sucient evidence is submitted supporting a law you consider unjust, you
have a right to vote not-guilty, simply because you disagree with the law. You
may agree with the law, yet disagree with the punishment for that particular
crime. If you feel the punishment will be too harsh, you also have the right
to vote not-guilty. Vote your conscience. The court never tells the jurors of
this undisclosed right, but it is there. The Fully Informed Jury Association
is a good source for this information. Learn about FIJA in section A.2.
1more information in section A.2
2more information in section A.2
3more information in section A.2
14.7.5 An an activist
Distribute this document. Read the distribution rules in section 16, and
make as many copies as you can distribute.
Chapter 15
About the Author
I have no medical or legal credentials. I have not even been drug tested
myself (because I refuse). I am an activist against the War on [Some] Drugs,
and I think that the government has taken the drug war to a ludicrous level.
NORML reports that every 9 seconds someone gets arrested for marijuana
posession. NORML also reports that 28are there for drug related crimes.
These people are not dangerous. They are there as victims of a witch hunt.
Laws created by the legislature to protect me from myself demonstrate how
totalitarian this country has become.
Incidentally, I have taken an interest in methods for beating an unjust
15.0.6 Contacting the Author
You may e-mail comments/corrections/suggestions to me. Send questions to
the urine-test mailing list. This way several people including me will get the
question, and I won’t be burdened with having to reply to all the mass mail
that I get. I probably will not be able to answer questions that this paper
does not answer anyway. Here is my public key:
Version: 4.5
Comment: Top Secret Underground Transmittal
I encourage everyone to use encryption. Conventional email o ers no
protection from disclosure attacks (where someone reads your private mail).
You may consider it paranoia to assume someone is monitoring your outgoing
mail; however, it is perfectly reasonable to assume that someone is reading
my incoming mail given the nature of my Internet personality. I use PGP1
and I recommend that you do too.
Encryption may not be sucient protection by itself. One who is monitoring
my mail will not know what a PGP user is saying or what I am saying
in response, but the eavesdropper does at least know who is talking to me,
and that is not good.
So I also encourage the use of anonymous remailers2. Anonymous remailers
provide a resonable degree of protection from anyone (even me) from
nding out who you are. If you need a response from me, then you can still
send me your message anonymously using a NYM service.
I assume everyone who contacts me wants to be anonymous, so I default to
not publishing contributors names or addresses in the credits. If you provide
me with information and want to be cited in the sources, tell me explicitly.
Many of my readers are experts in the eld. If you want to be available for
consulting directly to the public, let me know and I will add your address to
the sources.
Justin Gombos E-mail: <> Snail-Mail: 17950 Lassen
St., #335, Northridge, CA 91330 URL:
1more can be obtained about PGP in section A.2
2more information can be obtained about anonymous remailers in section A.2
Chapter 16
Distribution Rules
I am taking a Phillip Zimmerman approach. Our rights are in the line of re
from both government and private entities, and everyone needs to have free
access to this information. I want it to become widespread before adversaries
have a chance to stop it. Our current Congress is a threat to civil liberties, as
they have been launching anti-expression policies | targeting the Internet.
Anyone may distribute unmodi ed recent versions of this document
freely, provided that it is done non{pro t.
One way to ensure that the copy you are distributing is unmodi ed is
to get it directly from my web site. Before distribution, you should get my
current PGP key and use PGP to validate my signature. This will ensure
that no one tampered with the le.
One way to ensure that your version is recent is to compare the date and
version number of your copy to that of the copy on my web page immediatly
prior to distribution. Another way to ensure your version is recent is to add
your email address to my distribution list. Do this by emailing me asking
to be put on the distribution list. I will then notify you whenever a new
version emerges. The latter approach is the only way to guarentee that you
are publishing an up-to-date version via the web, or using some other form
of continuous distribution.
Pro tting from this text is prohibited.
Appendix A
A.1 Contributors
Thanks to everyone who contributed information! Many of my contributors
use anonymous accounts, or have requested that I keep them anonymous.
anon1 Anonymous contributor #1 is a clinical biochemist/toxicologist working
as the non-medical director of a small clinical laboratory. S/He
holds three degrees: a masters in biochemistry, a bachelors in chemistry
and an associates in medical laboratory technology and is certi ed
as a Clinical Laboratory Scientist by NCA. S/He has worked in the clinical
laboratory eld for 18 years and speci cally in drug testing labs
for over ves years. In addition, s/he has been recognized as a expert
before several states and the federal courts in matters relating to drug
and alcohol testing and it e ects on driving performance. S/He has testi
ed for both the prosecution and defense so his testimony has been
recognized as unbiased.
California NORML helped with information on detection times.
Clinton (not the U.S. president) Clinton has worked as a lab assistant in
two drug testing lab’s, and has other family members in the eld. In
usenet, Clinton is known as ZZYZX.
Dr. Grow studies molecular biology.
Nightbyrd, Je (founder of Byrd Labs) Nightbyrd is the author of the
“Conquering the Urine Tests” pamphlet. His 11th edition was updated
in 1996 and is out via snail-mail for $5. The pamphlet provides some
more elaborate information, and includes statistics and stories. Nightbyrd
has worked several years on protecting workers civil rights, and a
majority of my information comes from all the free consulting he has
provided (he’s practically a coauthor). If anyone has a related law suit
underway, Mr. Nightbyrd has one of the most extensive libraries of
materials in the country. (800) 480-2468; FAX (512) 478-7706.
Pearson, Anne Watters (founder of Martha Butter eld-Jay Foundation)
Pearson is devoted to counseling and coaching people faced with piss
Smith, Phillip Phillip Smith is a Portland NORML member who has helped
edit this paper, making corrections on grammar and content.
A.2 For Additional Information
American Civil Liberties Union ACLU is a freedom network with information
and legal resources to ght prohibition and protect the Constitution.
(212) 944-9800
Anonymous Remailers To learn about the security of the di erent types
of anonymous remailers, read my technical paper at hbcsc096/For non-technical information, read Andre Bacard’s Anonymous Remailer
FAQ at
Austin Nutritional Research Provides information about vitamins, herbs,
and nutrients.
Byrd Labs Laboratories founded by Je Nightbyrd. Byrd labs has run
more than 2,000 tests on urine and additives. They sell UrineAid, powdered
urine, and Conquering the Urine Tests pamphlet. Byrd Products,
1390 North McDowel suite G#337, Petaluma, CA. (800) 333-2152
CAPP Hi tech workers rights organization. (512) 448-4804
Carson, Ed Book: Just Say No to Drug Tests: How to Beat the Whiz Quiz.
ISBN 0-87364-624-X
Digit Press (GA) Info Line: (404) 924-1393
Drug Testing Hotline in California (900) 844-test
Drug Watch This page represents the position of drug testing advocates. It
may provide you with some good entertainment 🙂
Fully Informed Jury Association For free Jury Power Information Kit,
call (800) TEL-JURY. FIJA national snail-mail: PO Box 59, Helmville,
MT 59843. (406) 793-5550. Mr. Peyman (FIJA aliate) (714) 838-
Ho man, Abbie Book: Steal This Urine Test. ISBN 1568492928
Hyperreal Drug Testing Archives Links and articles related to drug testing.
J&J Enterprizes (aka Freedom Wholesalers). Distributes The Stu and
Naturally Klean Herbal Tea. Direct questions to (800) 883-3869. FAX
orders to (303) 765-5732. Snail-Mail: PO Box 102311, Denver, CO
Just-Say-No-To-Piss-Tests Project This is a list of drug testing policies
of many companies (last updated in 1994). gopher:// (800) 661-1357
Legal Action Center (212) 243-1313
Martha Butter eld-Jay Foundation (Oklahoma NORML) MBJF sent
me free literature, and a brochure on of their products. If you call, a
machine will answer. Calls will be returned collect. PO Box 57214,
Oklahoma City, OK 73157. (405) 521-URIN.
National Lawyers Guild (212) 614-6464
Non-Testers List The Hemperor maintains a searchable database that lists
employers who do not drug test in one table, and a list of Orwellian employers
who do drug test in another table. NORML operates a Drug Testing & Information Hotline. I don’t
recommend this hotline. People have called this line needing important
drug testing information in a hurry, only to get a recording. For the
price, I would expect a live person. The charge is $2.95 per minute.
900/97-NORML. 1636 ‘R’ St. N.W., 3rd Floor, Washington D.C. 20009
NORML Legal Referral (202) 483-5500
Party Hut Enterprises Distributor of Carbo Clean, Whizzies, and Klear.
If you would like to have more information about this product or a
catalog of the 100’s of other products that they carry just e-mail Charles
Alvis or
Performance Factors Makes video impairment test. 1746 Cole Blvd.,
Suite 265, Golden, CO 80401. (303) 271-0505 (415) 769-8300
PGP Pretty Good Privacy is the most widely accepted encryption software
around. It o ers military grade encryption. Download it from
PharmChem Laborities Inc. Boycott PharmChem for supplying the sweat
patch. Jay Whitney or David Asheim can be reached at (415) 328-6200
Sampson Health Products E-mail: Snail mail:
901 Rhode Rd., Kyle, Texas 78640. (512) 376-2537 anytime to speak
to an operator, leave message, or automated fax.
Testing Expert Witness Legal information. (615) 579-5425.
Zydot Unlimited, Inc. (800) 725-2481.
A.2.1 Drug Testing Consultants on the Net These people are looking to answer tough questions.
They say if they do not know an answer, they will research it
for you.
Je Nightbyrd Consult Nightbyrd with any drug testing question. Legal
issues are his specialty.
A.2.2 Drug Testing Mailing List
To subscribe, E-mail with subscribe urine-test Firstname
Lastname as the body. Nicholas Merrill maintains the mailing list as well as
the following WEB page (which is saturated with information and links.)
A.2.3 Newsgroups
The following newsgroups may be of interest:
[Anon1] Interview with anonymous contributor #1 (who is pro led in section
A). Interviewee made reference to Clin Pharmacol Ther 38 (85)
572-578 and Pharmacol Rev 38 (86) 151-178.
[Berns] Bernstein, Dennis; Kean, Leslie. More Than a Hair O ”.
The Progressive. May 1999. v63 i5 p32(1)
[Fine] Fine, Cory K. Video tests are the new frontier in drug detection”.
Personnel Journel. June 1992. v71 n6 p148(9).
[Gitel] Gitelson, Alan R.; Dudley, Robert L.; Dubnick, Melvin J.
American Government, 5th edition. 1998.
[1] Latimer, Dean. Hemp-Urinalysis ‘Myth’ Probed: at Kentucky Hemp
Feast, Urine Samples on the Side”. High Times. Jan. 22, 1999.
[2] Macdonald, Scott. The Role of Drugs in Workplace Injuries: is
Drug Testing Appropriate?”. Journal of Drug Issues. Fall 1995 v25 n4
[SATC] “Science and the Citizen”. Scienti c American March 1990. pp.18,22
[Thein] Thein, Lori A.; Thein, Jill M.; Landry, Gregory L. “Ergogenic Aids.
Special Series: Pharmacology.” Physical Therapy. May, 1995. p. 426
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