Legal Citations

1. See “The Administration’s Response to the Passage of California Proposition 215 and Arizona Proposition 200” (Dec. 30, 1996).

2. See Conant v. McCaffrey, 172 F.R.D. 681 (N.D. Cal. 1997).

3. See id.; Conant v. McCaffrey, 2000 WL 1281174 (N.D. Cal. 2000); Conant v. Walters, 309 F.3d 629 (9th Cir. 2002).

4. 309 F.3d 629 (9th Cir. 2002).

5. Id. at 634-36.

6. Criminal liability for aiding and abetting requires proof that the defendant “insome sort associate[d] himself with the venture, that he participate[d] in it as something that he wishe[d] to bring about, that he [sought] by his action to make it succeed.”Conant v. McCaffrey, 172 F.R.D. 681, 700 (N.D. Cal. 1997) (quotation omitted). A conspiracy to obtain cannabis requires an agreement between two or more persons to do this, with both persons knowing this illegal objective and intending to help accomplish it. Id. at 700-01.

7. 309 F.3d at 634 & 636.

8. Conant v. McCaffrey, 2000 WL 1281174, at *16 (N.D. Cal. 2000).

9. 309 F.3d at 634.

10. See id.. at 635; Conant v. McCaffrey, 172 F.R.D. 681, 700-01 (N.D. Cal. 1997).
Research Citations

11. Abrams DI et al (2003). Short-Term Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with HIV-1 Infection: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Ann Intern Med. Aug 19;139(4):258-66.

ARTHRITIS

12. Russo EB (2002). Role of cannabis and cannabinoids in pain management. In: Weiner RS, editor. Pain management: A practical guide for clinicians. 6th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;. p. 357-375.

13. Marcandier M (1764). Treatise on hemp. London: T. Becket and P.A. de Hondt.

14. Formukong E et al (1988). Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity of Constituents of Cannabis Sativa L. Inflammation 12: 361.

15. Barret ML et al (1985). Isolation from Cannabis sativa L. of Cannflavon – a novel inhibitor of prostaglandin production. Biochem. Pharmacol. 34: 2019

16. Burstein SH et al (1989). Antagonism to the actions of platelet activating factor by a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid. J Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 251: 531-5

17. Sofia RD (1989). Antiedemic and analgesic properties of delta-9-THC compared with three other drugs. Eur. J. Pharamacol. 41: 705-9

18. Zurier RB et al (1998). Dimethylheptyl-THC-11 Oic Acid: A Nonpsychoactive Antiinflammatory Agent with a Cannabinoid Template Structure. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM January; volume 41, number 1, p. 163-170.

19. Costa B et al (2004). Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. Mar;369(3):294-9. Epub 2004 Feb 12.

20. Malfait AM et al (2000). The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 15 97(17): 9561-6.

21. James JS (1998). Marijuana, inflammation, and CT-3 (DMH-11C): cannabis leads to new class of antiinflammatory drugs. AIDS Treat News. Jan 23;(No 287):1, 5.

22. Straus SE (2000). Immunoactive cannabinoids: Therapeutic prospects for marijuana constituents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 15 97(17):9563.

23. Shohami E (2001). Nature. Oct 4;413(6855):527-31.

24. Burstein SH (2000). Ajulemic acid (CT3): a potent analog of the acid metabolites of THC. Curr Pharm Des. Sep 6(13):1339-45.

25. Burstein SH et al (2004). Ajulemic acid: A novel cannabinoid produces analgesia without a “high”. Life Sci. Aug 6;75(12):1513-22.

26. Devane WAet al1(1992). Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science.;258: 1946-1949.

27. Barg J et al (1995). Cannabinomimetic behavioral effects of andadenylate cyclase inhibition by two new endogenous anandamides. Eur J Pharmacol.;287:145-152.

28. Klein TW et al (1998). Cannabinoid receptors and immunity. Immunol Today. 797:225-233.

29. Daaka Y et al (1996). Cannabinoid receptor proteins are increased in jurkat, human T-cell line after mitogen activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 276:776-783.

30. Kaminski NE (1996); Immune regulation by cannabinoid compounds through the inhibition of the cyclic AMP signaling cascade and altered gene expression. Biochem Pharmacol; 52(8):1133-40.

31. Di Marzo V (1998). ‘Endocannabinoids’ and other fatty acid derivatives with cannabimimetic properties: biochemistry and possible physiopathological relevance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta.1392(2-3):153-75.

32. Smith PB et al (1994). The pharmacological activity of anandamide, a putative endogenous cannabinoid in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 270:219-227.

33. Burstein SH (2000). Ajulemic acid (CT3): a potent analog of the acid metabolites of THC. Curr Pharm Des. Sep;6(13):1339-45.

34. Zurier RB et al (2003). Suppression of human monocyte interleukin-1beta production by ajulemic acid, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid. Biochem Pharmacol. Feb 15;65(4):649-55.

PAIN

35. O’Shaughnessy WB (1838). On the preparations of the Indian hemp, or gunjah (Cannabis indica); their effects on the animal system in health, and their utility in the treatment of tetanus and other convulsive diseases. Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society of Bengal. 18; 40: 71-102, 421-61.

36. Reynolds JR (1890). Therapeutical uses and toxic effects of Cannabis indica. Lancet; i: 637-638.

37. R. Noyes et al (1975). The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 18: 84-89.

38. Noyes R, Baram D (1974). Cannabis analgesia. Compr. Psychiatry 15: 531.

39. Petro D(1980). Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm and spasticity. Psychosomatics 21: 81-85.

40. El-Mallakh R (1987). Marijuana and migraine. Headache 27: 442-443.

41. Holdcroft A et al (1997). Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever. Anaesthesia 5: 483-486.

42. Hall W et al (1994). The Health and Psychological Consequences of Cannabis Use, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service: 194. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/home.htm

43. Growing L et al (1998). Therapeutic use of cannabis: clarifying the debate. Drug and Alcohol Review 17: 445-452.

44. Society for Neuroscience Press Conference, October 26, 1997. www.calyx.com/Eolsen/MEDICAL/POT/analgesia.html; “Marijuana-Like Drugs May Be Effective Painkillers.” Los Angeles Times. 26, Oct. 1997.

45. J. Joy et al (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Chapter 4, Section 4.4 http://bob.nap.edu/books/0309071550/html/

46. ibid

47. House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, “Ninth Report,” (1998). London: United Kingdom. Section 5.26 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/

48. Karst M et al (2003). Analgesic Effect of the Synthetic Cannabinoid CT-3 on Chronic Neuropathic Pain A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 290:1757-1762.

49. Richardson J et al (1998). Cannabinoids Reduce Hyperalgesia and Inflammation via Interaction with Peripheral CB1 Receptors. Pain. 75(1): 111-119.

50. Meng I et al (1998). An analgesic circuit activated by cannabinoids. Nature 395, 381-383.

51. Klarreich E (2001). Cannabis spray blunts pain: Early trials suggest cannabis spritz may give relief to chronic pain sufferers. British Association for the Advancement of Science. 4 Sept.

52. R. Callahan (1998). “How Does Marijuana Kill Pain?” Associated Press, October 4. http: //www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v98/n868/a07.html

53. Welch SP, Eads M (1999). Synergistic interactions of endogenous opioids and cannabinoid systems. Brain Res. Nov 27;848(1-2): 183-90.

54. Maurer et al (1990). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol Shows Antispastic and Analgesic Effects in a Single Case Double-Blind Trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 240:1-4

55. Holdcroft A., op cit.

56. Martin WJ (1999). Basic Mechanisms of Cannabinoid-Induced Analgesia. IASP Newsletter (International Association for the Study of Pain). Summer edition, p. 89.

57. Cookson C (2001). “High Hopes for Cannabis to Relieve Pain: British Association Science Festival in Glasgow”. Financial Times, September 4th. National News pg. 4

CANCER

58. Joy J et al (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Washington, DC: Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, Institute of Medicine..

59. British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.

60. House of Lords, Select Committee on Science and Technology (1998). Cannabis: The Scientific and Medical Evidence. London, England: The Stationery Office, Parliament.

61. American Cancer Society (2003). Cancer Facts and Figures 2003. http://www.cancer.org/downloads/STT/CAFF2003PWSecured.pdf

62. Gieringer D (1996). Review of the Human Studies on the Medical Use of Marijuana. http://norml.org/medical/medmj.studies.shtml. See state studies at http://www.drugpolicy.org/

63. Hall W et al (1994). The Health and Psychological Consequences of Cannabis Use, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service: 189. http://www.druglibrary.org/

64. Guzman M (2003) Cannabinoids: potential anticancer agents. Nat Rev Cancer. 3(10): 745-55

65. Joy, op. cit., 259. (Chapter 4 of this report contains sections on nausea, vomiting, wasting syndrome and anorexia)

66. Doblin et al (1991). Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists’ Experiences and Attitudes. J Clin Oncol,; 9: 1275-1290.

67. Knox RA (1997). “Study may undercut marijuana opponents – Report says THC did not cause cancer”. Boston Globe. January 30. p. 1(A).

68. James JS (1997). “Medical Marijuana: Unpublished Federal Study Found THC- Treated Rats Lived Longer, Had Less Cancer”. AIDS Treatment News. 263. http://www.immunet.org/

69. Guzman M (2003). Cannabinoids: Potential Anticancer Agents. Nature Reviews Cancer 3, 745 -755.

70. Blazquez C et al (2003) Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids. FASEB J. 17(3): 529-31. Epub 2003 Jan 02.

71. Sanchez C et al (2001). Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor. Cancer Res. 61(15): 5784-9.

72. Casanova ML et al (2003). Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. J Clin Invest. 111(1): 43-50

73. Jacobsson SO, Wallin T, Fowler CJ (2001) Inhibition of rat C6 glioma cell proliferation by endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids. Relative involvement of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Dec;299(3): 951-9.

74. I. Galve-Roperph et al (2000). Antitumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation of ERK activation. Nature Medicine 6: 313-319; ACM Bulletin. “THC destroys brain cancer in animal research.” http: //www.acmed.org/english/2000/eb000305.html

75. Benard J (2000). Cannabinoids, among others, send malignant tumors to nirvana. Bull Cancer 87: 299-300.

76. Di Marzo V et al (2001). Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase and enhances the anti-proliferative effect of anandamide in human breast cancer cells. Biochem J.. 15(358): 249-55.

77. Molnar Jet al (2000). Membrane associated with antitumor effects of crocine-ginsenoside and cannabinoid derivatives. Anticancer Res 20: 861-867.

78. Ruiz L et al (1999). ” -9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in human prostate PC-3 cells via a receptor-independent mechanism. FEBS Letter 458: 400-404.

79. Baek S et al (1998). Antitumor activity of cannabigerol against human oral epitheloid carcinoma cells. Arch Pharm Res 21: 353-356.

80. Harris L et al (1997). Anti-tumoral Properties of Cannabinoids. The Pharmacology of Marihuana, ed. M. Braude et al., 2 vols., New York: Raven Press (1976) 2: 773-776 as cited by L. Grinspoon et al., Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine (second edition), New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 173.

81. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 1trans-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in F344N/N Rats and BC63F1 Mice. National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program, NIH Publication No. 97-3362 (November 1996).

82. De Petrocellis L et al (1998). The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 8375-8380. http: //www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/95/14/8375

83. “Pot Chemicals Might Inhibit Breast Tumors, Stroke Damage,” Dallas Morning News, July 13, 1998.

84. Di Marzo V et al (2001). Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase and enhances the anti-proliferative effect of anandamide in human breast cancer cells.Biochem J. 358(Pt 1):249-55

85. Portella G et al (2003). Inhibitory effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation on tumor growth and metastatic spreading: actions on signals involved in angiogenesis and metastasis.FASEB J. 17(12): 1771-3. Epub 2003 Jul 03.

86. Mimeault M et al (2003). Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of anandamide in human prostatic cancer cell lines: implication of epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation and ceramide production. Prostate. 56(1): 1-12.

87. Ligresti A et al (2003). Possible endocannabinoid control of colorectal cancer growth. Gastroenterology. 125(3):677-87.

88. Gomez del Pulgar T et al (2002). De novo-synthesized ceramide is involved in cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. Biochem J. 363(Pt 1):183-8.

89. Gomez Del Pulgar T et al (2002). Cannabinoids protect astrocytes from ceramide-induced apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway. J Biol Chem. 277(39):36527-33. Epub 2002 Jul 19.

90. Gonzalez S et al (2000). Decreased cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA levels and immunoreactivity in pituitary hyperplasia induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens. Pituitary. 3(4):221-6.

91. Pagotto Uet al (2001). Normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenomas express cannabinoid receptor type 1 and synthesize endogenous cannabinoids: first evidence for a direct role of cannabinoids on hormone modulation at the human pituitary level. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86(6):2687-96

92. Rubovitch V, Gafni M, Sarne Y (2002) The cannabinoid agonist DALN positively modulates L-type voltage-dependent calcium-channels in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 101(1-2):93-102.

93. Bifulco Met al (2001) Control by the endogenous cannabinoid system of ras oncogene-dependent tumor growth. FASEB J. 15(14): 2745-7. Epub 2001 Oct 29.

94. Massi P et al (2004). Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoative cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. JPET 308:838-845.

95. McAllister SD et al (2005) Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells. J Neurooncol. Aug;74(1):31-40.

MOVEMENT DISORDERS

96. O’Shaughnessy WB (1838). On the preparations of the Indian hemp, or gunjah (Cannabis indica); their effects on the animal system in health, and their utility in the treatment of tetanus and other convulsive diseases. Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society of Bengal. 18; 40: 71-102, 421-61.

97. Ibid.

98. Zajicek J et al (2003). Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. Nov 8;362(9395): 1517-26.

99. Muller-Vahl KR et al (1999). Cannabis in movement disorders. Forsch Komplementarmed. Oct;6 Suppl 3:23-7.

100. Amtmann D et al (2004). Survey of cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. Mar-Apr;21(2):95-104.

101. Baker D et al (2000). Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model. Nature. Mar 2;404(6773):84-7.

102. Lorenz R (2004). On the application of cannabis in paediatrics and epileptology. Neuroendocrinol Lett. Feb-Apr;25(1-2):40-4.

103. Malec J et al (1982). Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Mar;63(3):116-8.

104. Borg J et al (1975). Dose Effects of Smoking Marihuana on Human Cognitive and Motor Functions. Psychopharmacologia, 42, 211-218.

105. Dunn M, Ross D (1974). The Perceived Effects of Marijuana on Spinal Cord Injured Males. Paraplegia, 12, 175.

106. Hanigan WC et al (1986). The Effects of Delta-9-THC on Human Spasticity. Journal of the American Society of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 198.

107. Manno J E et al (1970). Comparative Effects of Smoking Marihuana or Placebo on Human Motor & Mental Performance. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 11:6, 808-815.

108. Meinck HM et al (1989). Effect of Cannabinoids on Spasticity and Ataxia in Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 236: 120-22 .

109. Petro D & Ellenberger C. Jr. (1981). Treatment of Human Spasticity with Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21:8&9, 413S-416S.

110. Petro D (1980). Marijuana as a Therapeutic Agent for Muscle Spasm or Spasticity. Psychosomatics. 21:1, 81-85

111. Howlett AC (1995). Pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 35:607-634.

112. Abood ME and Martin BR (1996). Molecular neurobiology of the cannabinoid receptor. Intl Rev Neurobiol. 39:197-221.

113. Devane WA et al (1992). Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science. 258: 1946-1949.

114. Barg J et al (1995). Cannabinomimetic behavioral effects of and adenylate cyclase inhibition by two new endogenous anandamides. Eur J Pharmacol. 287:145-152.

115. Klein TW et al (1998). Cannabinoid receptors and immunity. Immunol Today. 797:225-233.

116. Pryce G et al (2003). Cannabinoids inhibit neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain. Oct. 126(Pt 10): 2191-202. Epub 2003 Jul 22.

117. Lastres-Becker I et al (2003). Effects of cannabinoids in the rat model of Huntington’s disease generated by an intrastriatal injection of malonate. Neuroreport. May 6;14(6):813-6.